Decision Superiority: Countering Surprise, Denial, and Deception

To protect national security and mitigate asymmetric threats and risks, we must establish absolute superiority in assessing threat indications and warning signs and responding appropriately. A key element in this capability is preventing and countering strategic and operational surprise, denial, and deception. In this area, our capability is heavily dependent on information technology and distributed data, which are themselves at risk from multi-faceted asymmetric attacks.

As cyber threats, cyber-related insider threats, and the means of deception grow in sophistication and destructive power, we must develop new tools, authorities, and strategies to counter such challenges as pandemics, terrorism, economic/market manipulation, weapons of mass destruction, and other technology proliferation. Federal planning is key, but resource commitments are also necessary to enhance the abilities of every stakeholder organization in this area.